While all changes do not lead to improvement, all improvement requires change. The ability to develop, test, and implement changes is essential for any individual, group, or organization that wants to continuously improve. But what kinds of changes will lead to improvement? Usually, a unique, specific change is required to obtain improvement for a specific set of circumstances. Thus, there are many kinds of changes. But these specific changes are developed from a limited number of change concepts.

A concept is a general, abstract notion (approach, thought, belief, or perception) carried out through a more specific idea. A change concept is a general notion or approach to change found to be useful in developing specific ideas for changes that lead to improvement. Creatively combining these change concepts with specific subject matter knowledge can result in specific changes that have good system properties and do not require tradeoffs between costs and quality.

This appendix enumerates seventy-two change concepts. The use of change concepts was introduced in Chapter 6, “Developing a Change.” They are examined more specifically in several of the other chapters. Many of the change concepts can be derived by applications of W. Edwards Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge, introduced in Chapter 4. Others have been collected over time by this book’s authors. Several of the concepts are included in other approaches to improvement such Total Quality Management, Reliability, Safety, Six-Sigma and Lean. A.1 

Regardless of the origin of the concepts, it is their usefulness to improvement that makes them valuable. This appendix organizes these ideas in one place for ease in reference and use. A complete list of the 72 change concepts are listed in Figure A.1. How should they be used for any specific improvement effort? This blog category is meant as a place for people to explore the application of change concepts.

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